When gathering you also have a chance to discover a new location in the city you are in. When this happens you will gain skill points as an Explorer. You may also be forced to fight a group of monsters, or even other players in the city. Winning these fights will give you points in the respective Extreme gathering skill, and in the case of a PvP fight, White Soul items. The difficulty of the PvE fights scales with the rank of gathering chosen, and the difficulty of the PvP fights scales with your level. Furthermore, if you already have R1 of the skill, it appears that you need to do the R2 gathering to get points in the R2 tier of the skill.
PVP fights can range in number from 1v1 to 4v4, but PvE fights will only go up to 1v4 (?).
The items you can receive from gathering depend on which gathering you attempt:
There is also a slim chance that you will find items from one category when you are gathering for another (eg: wood from Herbalist). The percentage chance of finding respective items is not known, however there is a project which is attempting to deduce this information with help from the player base.
You wander for a long time, but find nothing
This message appears when you have discovered all the event sites you currently can in a city. For those who find it frustrating, note that it does not subtract 10 AP from your total when you get this message.